Links & References



Below is an annotated index of key topics from Wikipedia.


An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time-varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal. Wikipedia

In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal. Wikipedia

Arduino (/ɑːˈdwinoʊ/) is an open-source hardware and software company, project and user community that designs and manufactures single-board microcontrollers and microcontroller kits for building digital devices. Wikipedia


Binary number. In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically “0” (zero) and “1” (one). The base-2 numeral system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Each digit is referred to as a bit. Wikipedia

breadboard is a construction base for prototyping of electronics. Originally the word referred to a literal bread board, a polished piece of wood used for slicing bread.[1] In the 1970s the solderless breadboard (a.k.a. plugboard, a terminal array board) became available and nowadays the term “breadboard” is commonly used to refer to these. Wikipedia


Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as “the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine.” Wikipedia

In electrical engineering, a common rail (shortened to COM) is a shared path between different electrical routes in an electrical circuit. For example, a device or circuit board might have a power rail or a ground rail, which components are attached to, so all the electrical charge flowing through different components is drawn from/collected into a single conductor line. Wikipedia

The Celsius scale, also known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale. As an SI derived unit, it is used worldwide. However, in the United States, the Bahamas, Belize, the Cayman Islands, and Liberia, Fahrenheit remains the preferred scale for everyday temperature measurement. Wikipedia


Data acquisition is the process of sampling signals that measure real world physical conditions and converting the resulting samples into digital numeric values that can be manipulated by a computer. Wikipedia

Data transmission is the transfer of data over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel. Examples of such channels are copper wires, optical fibers, wireless communication channels, storage media and computer buses. Wikipedia

Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works. Numbers and letters are commonly used representations. Wikipedia


The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol e  or β  , whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.  Wikipedia


In computer science, function composition is an act or mechanism to combine simple functions to build more complicated ones. Like the usual composition of functions in mathematics, the result of each function is passed as the argument of the next, and the result of the last one is the result of the whole. Wikipedia


The Internet of things is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. Wikipedia

The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the foundational protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol. Wikipedia

An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. Wikipedia


jump wire (also known as jumper wire, or jumper) is an electrical wire, or group of them in a cable, with a connector or pin at each end (or sometimes without them – simply “tinned”), which is normally used to interconnect the components of a breadboard or other prototype or test circuit, internally or with other equipment or components, without soldering.[1] Wikipedia


A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it Wikipedia


A microcontroller is a small computer on a single metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuit chip. In modern terminology, it is similar to, but less sophisticated than, a system on a chip; a SoC may include a microcontroller as one of its components. Wikipedia

MQTT is an open OASIS and ISO standard lightweight, publish-subscribe network protocol that transports messages between devices. The protocol usually runs over TCP/IP; however, any network protocol that provides ordered, lossless, bi-directional connections can support MQTT. Wikipedia


Open-source hardware consists of physical artifacts of technology designed and offered by the open-design movement. Both free and open-source software and open-source hardware are created by this open-source culture movement and apply a like concept to a variety of components. Wikipedia


Processing is an open-source graphical library and integrated development environment (IDE) built for the electronic arts, new media art, and visual design communities with the purpose of teaching non-programmers the fundamentals of computer programming in a context. Wikipedia


Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in workplaces. The term also refers to the interaction between society’s complex infrastructures and human behaviour. In this sense, society itself, and most of its substructures, are complex sociotechnical systems. Wikipedia

Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems. A system is a cohesive conglomeration of interrelated and interdependent parts which can be natural or human-made. Wikipedia


List of temperature sensors Wikipedia

The Transmission Control Protocol is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite. It originated in the initial network implementation in which it complemented the Internet Protocol. Therefore, the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. Wikipedia


In computer programming, a variable or scalar is a storage address (identified by a memory address) paired with an associated symbolic name, which contains some known or unknown quantity of information referred to as a valueWikipedia

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension is the difference in electric potential between two points, which is defined as the work needed per unit of charge to move a test charge between the two points. Wikipedia